Maya Doomsday Prediction

Maya Doomsday Prediction

Source Wikipedia

Mesoamerican Long Count calendar

December 2012 marks the conclusion of a b’ak’tun—a time period in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar which was used in Central America prior to the arrival of Europeans. Although the Long Count was most likely invented by the Olmec,[15] it has become closely associated with the Maya civilization, whose classic period lasted from 250 to 900 AD.[16] The writing system of the classic Maya has been substantially deciphered,[17] meaning that a corpusof their written and inscribed material has survived from before the European conquest.

Unlike the 260-day tzolk’in still used today among the Maya, the Long Count was linear rather than cyclical, and kept time roughly in units of 20: 20 days made a uinal, 18 uinals (360 days) made a tun, 20 tuns made a k’atun, and 20 k’atuns (144,000 days or roughly 394 years) made up a b’ak’tun. Thus, the Mayan date of 8.3.2.10.15 represents 8 b’ak’tuns, 3 k’atuns, 2 tuns, 10 uinals and 15 days.[18][19]

Apocalypse

There is a strong tradition of “world ages” in Mayan literature, but the record has been distorted, leaving several possibilities open to interpretation.[20]According to the Popol Vuh, a compilation of the creation accounts of the K’iche’ Maya of the Colonial-era highlands, we are living in the fourth world.[21]The Popol Vuh describes the gods first creating three failed worlds, followed by a successful fourth world in which humanity was placed. In the Maya Long Count, the previous world ended after 13 b’ak’tuns, or roughly 5,125 years.[22][Note a] The Long Count’s “zero date”[Note b][Note c] was set at a point in the past marking the end of the third world and the beginning of the current one, which corresponds to 11 August 3114 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.[23][7] This means that the fourth world will also have reached the end of its 13th b’ak’tun, or Mayan date 13.0.0.0.0, on 21 December 2012. In 1957, Mayanist and astronomer Maud Worcester Makemson wrote that “the completion of a Great Period of 13 b’ak’tuns would have been of the utmost significance to the Maya”.[24] In 1966, Michael D. Coe wrote in The Maya that “there is a suggestion … that Armageddon would overtake the degenerate peoples of the world and all creation on the final day of the 13th [b’ak’tun]. Thus … our present universe [would] be annihilated [in December 2012][Note e]when the Great Cycle of the Long Count reaches completion.”[25]

an ancient manuscript page

The oldest surviving manuscript of the Popol Vuh, dated to 1701

Objections

Coe’s interpretation was repeated by other scholars through the early 1990s.[26] In contrast, later researchers said that, while the end of the 13th b’ak’tun would perhaps be a cause for celebration,[3] it did not mark the end of the calendar.[27] “There is nothing in the Maya or Aztec or ancient Mesoamerican prophecy to suggest that they prophesied a sudden or major change of any sort in 2012”, said Mayanist scholar Mark Van Stone. “The notion of a ‘Great Cycle’ coming to an end is completely a modern invention.”[28] In 1990, Mayanist scholars Linda Scheleand David Freidel argued that the Maya “did not conceive this to be the end of creation, as many have suggested”.[29] Susan Milbrath, curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, stated that, “We have no record or knowledge that [the Maya] would think the world would come to an end” in 2012.[3] Sandra Noble, executive director of the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, said, “For the ancient Maya, it was a huge celebration to make it to the end of a whole cycle”, and, “The 2012 phenomenon is a complete fabrication and a chance for a lot of people to cash in”.[3] “There will be another cycle”, said E. Wyllys Andrews V, director of the Tulane University Middle American Research Institute. “We know the Maya thought there was one before this, and that implies they were comfortable with the idea of another one after this.”[30] Commenting on the new calendar found at Xultún, one archaeologist said “The ancient Maya predicted the world would continue – that 7,000 years from now, things would be exactly like this. We keep looking for endings. The Maya were looking for a guarantee that nothing would change. It’s an entirely different mindset.”[31]

Several prominent individuals representing Maya of Guatemala decried the suggestion that the world ends in the b’ak’tun 13. Ricardo Cajas, president of the Colectivo de Organizaciones Indígenas de Guatemala, said the date did not represent an end of humanity but that the new cycle, “supposes changes in human consciousness”. Martín Sacalxot, of the office of the Procurador de los Derechos Humanos (Guatemala’s Human Rights Ombudsman, PDH), said that the end of the calendar has nothing to do with the end of the world or the year 2012.[32]

Prior associations

The European association of the Maya with eschatology dates back to the time of Christopher Columbus, who was compiling a work called Libro de las profecias during the voyage in 1502 when he first heard about the “Maia” on Guanaja, an island off the north coast of Honduras.[33] Influenced by the writings of Bishop Pierre d’Ailly, Columbus believed that his discovery of “most distant” lands (and, by extension, the Maya themselves) was prophesied and would bring about the Apocalypse. End-times fears were widespread during the early years of the Spanish Conquest as the result of popularastrological predictions in Europe of a second Great Flood for the year 1524.[33]

In the early 1900s, German scholar Ernst Förstemann interpreted the last page of the Dresden Codex as a representation of the end of the world in a cataclysmic flood. He made reference to the destruction of the world and an apocalypse, though he made no reference to the 13th b’ak’tun or 2012 and it was not clear that he was referring to a future event.[34] His ideas were repeated by archaeologist Sylvanus Morley,[35] who directly paraphrased Förstemann and added his own embellishments, writing, “Finally, on the last page of the manuscript, is depicted the Destruction of the World … Here, indeed, is portrayed with a graphic touch the final all-engulfing cataclysm” in the form of a Great Flood. These comments were later repeated in Morley’s book, The Ancient Maya, the first edition of which was published in 1946.[33]

Mayan references to b’ak’tun 13

It is not certain what significance the classic Maya gave to the 13th b’ak’tun.[36] Most classic Maya inscriptions are strictly historical and do not make any prophetic declarations.[36] Two items in the Mayan classical corpus, however, do mention the end of the 13th b’ak’tun: Tortuguero Monument 6 and La Corona Hieroglyphic Stairway 12.

Tortuguero

The Tortuguero site, which lies in southernmost Tabasco, Mexico, dates from the 7th century AD and consists of a series of inscriptions mostly in honor of the contemporary ruler Bahlam Ajaw. One inscription, known as Tortuguero Monument 6, is the only inscription known to refer to b’ak’tun 13 in any detail. It has been partially defaced; Sven Gronemeyer and Barbara MacLeod have given this translation:

tzuhtzjo:m uy-u:xlaju:n pik
chan ajaw u:x uni:w
uhto:m il[?]
ye’ni/ye:n bolon yokte’
ta chak joyaj
It will be completed the 13th b’ak’tun.
It is 4 Ajaw 3 K’ank’in
and it will happen a ‘seeing'[?].
It is the display of B’olon-Yokte’
in a great “investiture”.[37]
Vase illustration in which the god Bolon Yukte is seen in profile, kneeling with his head back and his mouth open. He wears an elaborate feather headdress.

The Tortuguero monument connects the end of the 13th b’ak’tun with the appearance of Bolon Yokte’ K’uh, shown here on the Vase of Seven Gods.

Very little is known about the god Bolon Yokte’. According to an article by Mayanists Markus Eberl and Christian Prager in British Anthropological Reports, his name is composed of the elements “nine”, ‘OK-te’ (the meaning of which is unknown), and “god”. Confusion in classical period inscriptions suggests that the name was already ancient and unfamiliar to contemporary scribes.[38] He also appears in inscriptions from PalenqueUsumacinta, and La Mar as a god of war, conflict, and the underworld. In one stele he is portrayed with a rope tied around his neck, and in another with an incense bag, together signifying a sacrifice to end a cycle of years.[39]

Based on observations of modern Mayan rituals, Gronemeyer and MacLeod claim that the stela refers to a celebration in which a person portraying Bolon Yokte’ K’uh was wrapped in ceremonial garments and paraded around the site.[40][41] They note that the association of Bolon Yokte’ K’uh with b’ak’tun 13 appears to be so important on this inscription that it supersedes more typical celebrations such as “erection of stelae, scattering of incense” and so forth. Furthermore, they assert that this event was indeed planned for 2012 and not the 7th century.[42] Mayanist scholar Stephen Houston contests this view by arguing that future dates on Mayan inscriptions were simply meant to draw parallels with contemporary events, and that the words on the stela describe a contemporary rather than a future scene.[43]

La Corona

In April–May 2012, a team of archaeologists unearthed a previously unknown inscription on a stairway at the La Corona site in Guatemala. The inscription, on what is known as Hieroglyphic Stairway 12, describes the establishment of a royal court in Calakmul in 635 AD, and compares the then-recent completion of 13 k’atuns with the future completion of the 13th b’ak’tun. However, it contains no speculation or prophecy as to what the scribes believed would happen at that time.[44]

Dates beyond b’ak’tun 13

Mayan inscriptions occasionally mention predicted future events or commemorations that would occur on dates far beyond the completion of the 13th b’ak’tun. Most of these are in the form of “distance dates”; Long Count dates together with an additional number, known as a Distance Number, which when added to them makes a future date. On the west panel at the Temple of Inscriptions in Palenque, a section of text projects forward to the 80th 52-year Calendar Round from the coronation of the ruler K’inich Janaab’ Pakal. Pakal’s accession occurred on 9.9.2.4.8, equivalent to 27 July 615 AD in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. The inscription begins with Pakal’s birthdate of 9.8.9.13.0 (24 March, 603 AD Gregorian) and then adds the Distance Number 10.11.10.5.8 to it,[45] arriving at a date of 21 October 4772 AD, more than 4,000 years after Pakal’s time.[28][45][46]

Another example is Stela 1 at Coba which marks the date of creation as 13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.0.0.0.0, or nineteen units above the b’ak’tun. According to Linda Schele, these 13s represent “the starting point of a huge odometer of time”, with each acting as a zero and resetting to 1 as the numbers increase.[29][Note c] Thus this inscription anticipates the current universe lasting at least 2021×13×360 days,[47] or roughly 2.687×1028 years; a time span equal to 2 quintillion times the age of the universe as determined by cosmologists. Others have suggested, however, that this date marks creation as having occurred after that time span.[47][48]

In 2012, researchers announced the discovery of a series of Mayan astronomical tables in Xultún, Guatemala which plot the movements of the Moon and other astronomical bodies over the course of 17 b’ak’tuns.[31][49][50]

New Age beliefs

Many assertions about the year 2012 form part of Mayanism, a non-codified collection of New Age beliefs about ancient Maya wisdom and spirituality.[4][51][52][53][54][55] The term is distinct from “Mayanist“, used to refer to an academic scholar of the Maya.[52][56] Archaeoastronomer Anthony Aveni says that while the idea of “balancing the cosmos” was prominent in ancient Maya literature, the 2012 phenomenon does not draw from those traditions. Instead, it is bound up with American concepts such as the New Age movement, millenarianism, and the belief in secret knowledge from distant times and places.[57] Established themes found in 2012 literature include “suspicion towards mainstream Western culture”, the idea of spiritual evolution, and the possibility of leading the world into the New Age by individual example or by a group’s joined consciousness. The general intent of this literature is not to warn of impending doom but “to foster counter-cultural sympathies and eventually socio-political and ‘spiritual’ activism”.[2] Aveni, who has studied New Age and search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) communities, describes 2012 narratives as the product of a “disconnected” society: “Unable to find spiritual answers to life’s big questions within ourselves, we turn outward to imagined entities that lie far off in space or time—entities that just might be in possession of superior knowledge”.[58]

Origins

In 1975, the ending of b’ak’tun 13 became the subject of speculation by several New Age authors, who asserted it would correspond with a global “transformation of consciousness”. In Mexico Mystique: The Coming Sixth Age of ConsciousnessFrank Waters tied Coe’s original date of 24 December 2011[Note e] to astrology and the prophecies of the Hopi,[59] while both José Argüelles (in The Transformative Vision)[60] and Terence McKenna (in The Invisible Landscape)[61][62] discussed the significance of the year 2012 without mentioning a specific day.

In 1983, with the publication of Robert J. Sharer‘s revised table of date correlations in the 4th edition of Morley’s The Ancient Maya,[Note e] each became convinced that 21 December 2012 had significant meaning. By 1987, the year in which he organized the Harmonic Convergence event, Arguelles was using the date 21 December 2012 in The Mayan Factor: Path Beyond Technology.[63][64] He claimed that on 13 August 3113 BC the Earth began a passage through a “galactic synchronization beam” that emanated from the center of our galaxy, that it would pass through this beam during a period of 5200 tuns (Maya cycles of 360 days each), and that this beam would result in “total synchronization” and “galactic entrainment” of individuals “plugged into the Earth’s electromagnetic battery” by 13.0.0.0.0 (21 Dec 2012). He believed that the Maya aligned their calendar to correspond to this phenomenon.[65]Anthony Aveni has dismissed all of these ideas.[66]

In 2006, author Daniel Pinchbeck popularized New Age concepts about this date in his book 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl, linking b’ak’tun 13 to beliefs in crop circlesalien abduction, and personal revelations based on the use of hallucinogenic drugs and mediumship.[67][68] Pinchbeck claims to discern a “growing realization that materialism and the rational, empirical worldview that comes with it has reached its expiration date … [w]e’re on the verge of transitioning to a dispensation of consciousness that’s more intuitive, mystical and shamanic”.[8]

Galactic alignment

There is no significant astronomical event tied to the Long Count’s start date.[69] However, its supposed end date has been tied to astronomical phenomena by esotericfringe, and New Age literature that places great significance on astrology, especially astrological interpretations associated with the phenomenon of axial precession.[51][53] Chief among these ideas is the astrological concept of a “galactic alignment”, which is distinct from but related to the astronomical concept of occultation.

Precession

In the Solar System, the planets and the Sun lie roughly within the same flat plane, known as the plane of the ecliptic. From our perspective on Earth, theecliptic is the path taken by the Sun across the sky over the course of the year. The twelve constellations that line the ecliptic are known as the zodiacalconstellations and, annually, the Sun passes through all of them in turn. Additionally, over time, the Sun’s annual cycle appears to recede very slowly backward by one degree every 72 years, or by one constellation approximately every 2,160 years. This backward movement, called “precession“, is due to a slight wobble in the Earth’s axis as it spins, and can be compared to the way a spinning top wobbles as it slows down.[70] Over the course of 25,800 years, a period often called a Great Year, the Sun’s path completes a full, 360-degree backward rotation through the zodiac.[70] In Western astrological traditions, precession is measured from the March equinox, one of the two annual points at which the Sun is exactly halfway between its lowest and highest points in the sky. Presently, the Sun’s March equinox position is in the constellation Pisces and is moving back into Aquarius. This signals the end of oneastrological age (the Age of Pisces) and the beginning of another (the Age of Aquarius).[71]

Similarly, the Sun’s December solstice position (in the northern hemisphere, the lowest point on its annual path; in the southern hemisphere, the highest) is currently in the constellation of Sagittarius, one of two constellations in which the zodiac intersects with the Milky Way.[72] Every year, on the December solstice, the Sun and the Milky Way, from the surface of the Earth, appear to come into alignment, and every year, precession causes a slight shift in the Sun’s position in the Milky Way. Given that the Milky Way is between 10° and 20° wide, it takes between 700 and 1400 years for the Sun’s December solstice position to precess through it.[73] It is currently about halfway through the Milky Way, crossing the galactic equator.[74] In 2012, the Sun’s December solstice will fall on 21 December.

Mysticism

a photograph of the Milky Way, rotated 90 degrees

The Milky Way near Cygnus showing the lane of the Dark Rift, which the Maya called the Xibalba be or “Black Road”

Mystical speculations about the precession of the equinoxes and the Sun’s proximity to the center of the Milky Way appeared in Hamlet’s Mill (1969) byGiorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Deschend. These were quoted and expanded upon by Terence and Dennis McKenna in The Invisible Landscape (1975). The significance of a future “galactic alignment” was noted in 1991 by astrologer Raymond Mardyks, who asserted that the winter solstice would align with the galactic plane in 1998/1999. He wrote that this event “only occurs once each 26,000-year cycle and would be most definitely of utmost significance to the top flight ancient astrologers”.[75] Astrologer Bruce Scofield notes, “The Milky Way crossing of the winter solstice is something that has been neglected by Western astrologers, with a few exceptions. Charles Jayne made a very early reference to it, and in the 1970s Rob Hand mentioned it in his talks on precession but didn’t elaborate on it. Ray Mardyks later made a point of it, and after that John [Major] Jenkins, myself, and Daniel Giamario began to talk about it.”[76]

Adherents to the idea, following a theory first proposed by Munro Edmonson,[77] allege that the Maya based their calendar on observations of the Great Riftor Dark Rift, a band of dark dust clouds in the Milky Way, which, according to some scholars, the Maya called the Xibalba be or “Black Road”.[78] John Major Jenkins claims that the Maya were aware of where the ecliptic intersected the Black Road and gave this position in the sky a special significance in their cosmology.[79] According to Jenkins, precession will align the Sun precisely with the galactic equator at the 2012 winter solstice.[79] Jenkins claimed that the classical Maya anticipated this conjunction and celebrated it as the harbinger of a profound spiritual transition for mankind.[80] New Age proponents of the galactic alignment hypothesis argue that, just as astrology uses the positions of stars and planets to make claims of future events, the Maya plotted their calendars with the objective of preparing for significant world events.[81] Jenkins attributes the insights of ancient Maya shamans about the galactic center to their use of psilocybin mushroomspsychoactive toads, and other psychedelics.[82] Jenkins also associates the Xibalba be with a “world tree”, drawing on studies of contemporary (not ancient) Maya cosmology.[83]

Criticism

Astronomers such as David Morrison argue that the galactic equator is an entirely arbitrary line and can never be precisely drawn, because it is impossible to determine the Milky Way’s exact boundaries, which vary depending on clarity of view. Jenkins claims he drew his conclusions about the location of the galactic equator from observations taken at above 11,000 feet (3,400 m), an altitude that gives a clearer image of the Milky Way than Maya had access to.[65] Furthermore, since the Sun is half a degree wide, its solstice position takes 36 years to precess its full width. Jenkins himself notes that even given his determined location for the line of the galactic equator, its most precise convergence with the center of the Sun already occurred in 1998, and so asserts that, rather than 2012, the galactic alignment instead focuses on a multi-year period centred on 1998.[84][85][86]

There is no clear evidence that the classic Maya were aware of precession. Some Maya scholars, such as Barbara MacLeod,[41] Michael Grofe,[87] Eva Hunt, Gordon Brotherston, and Anthony Aveni,[88] have suggested that some Mayan holy dates were timed to precessional cycles, but scholarly opinion on the subject remains divided.[28] There is also little evidence, archaeological or historical, that the Maya placed any importance on solstices or equinoxes.[28][89] It is possible that only the early Mesoamericans observed solstices,[90] but this is also a disputed issue among Mayanists.[28][89] There is also no evidence that the classic Maya attached any importance to the Milky Way; there is no glyph in their writing system to represent it, and no astronomical or chronological table tied to it.[91]

Timewave zero and the I Ching

a greyscale graph with multiple, jagged peaks and troughs and an overall descending pattern, set amidst complex virtual instrumentation

A screenshot of the “Timewave Zero” software

“Timewave zero” is a numerological formula that purports to calculate the ebb and flow of “novelty”, defined as increase over time in the universe‘s interconnectedness, or organized complexity.[92] According to Terence McKenna, the universe has a teleological attractor at the end of time that increases interconnectedness, eventually reaching a singularity of infinite complexity in 2012, at which point anything and everything imaginable will occur simultaneously. He conceived this idea over several years in the early to mid-1970s whilst using psilocybin mushrooms and DMT.[92][93]

McKenna expressed “novelty” in a computer program which purportedly produces a waveform known as “timewave zero” or the “timewave”. Based on McKenna’s interpretation of the King Wen sequence of the I Ching, an ancient Chinese book on divination,[61] the graph appears to show great periods of novelty corresponding with major shifts in humanity’s biological and sociocultural evolution. He believed that the events of any given time are resonantly related to the events of other times, and chose the atomic bombing of Hiroshima as the basis for calculating his end date of November 2012.[94] When he later discovered this date’s proximity to the end of the 13th b’ak’tun of the Maya calendar, he revised his hypothesis so that the two dates matched.[2]

The 1975 first edition of The Invisible Landscape refers to 2012 (but no specific day during the year) only twice. In the 1993 second edition, McKenna employed Sharer’s date[Note e] of 21 December 2012 throughout.[2][93]

Doomsday theories

A far more apocalyptic view of the year 2012 that has spread in various media describes the end of the world or of human civilization on that date. This view has been promulgated by many hoax pages on the Internet, particularly on YouTube,[95] as well as on several cable TV channels.

Other alignments

Some people have interpreted the galactic alignment apocalyptically, claiming that when it occurs, it will somehow create a combined gravitational effect between the Sun and the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy (known as Sagittarius A*), thus creating havoc on Earth.[96] Apart from the fact noted above that the “galactic alignment” already happened in 1998, the Sun’s apparent path through the zodiac as seen from Earth does not take it near the true galactic center, but rather several degrees above it.[74] Even if this were not the case, Sagittarius A* is 30,000 light years from Earth and would have to be more than 6 million times closer to cause any gravitational disruption to Earth’s Solar System.[97][98] This reading of the alignment was included on the History Channel documentary, Decoding the Past. However, John Major Jenkins has complained that a science fiction writer co-authored the documentary, and he went on to characterize it as “45 minutes of unabashed doomsday hype and the worst kind of inane sensationalism”.[99]

Some believers in a 2012 doomsday have used the term “galactic alignment” to describe a very different phenomenon proposed by some scientists to explain a pattern in mass extinctions supposedly observed in the fossil record.[100] According to this hypothesis, mass extinctions are not random, but recur every 26 million years. To account for this, it suggests that vertical oscillations made by the Sun on its 250-million-year orbit of the galactic center cause it to regularly pass through the galactic plane. When the Sun’s orbit takes it outside the galactic plane which bisects the galactic disc, the influence of thegalactic tide is weaker. However, when re-entering the galactic disc—as it does every 20–25 million years—it comes under the influence of the far stronger “disc tides”, which, according to mathematical models, increase the flux of Oort cloud comets into the inner Solar System by a factor of 4, thus leading to a massive increase in the likelihood of a devastating comet impact.[101] However, this “alignment” takes place over tens of millions of years, and could never be timed to an exact date.[102] Evidence shows that the Sun passed through the plane bisecting the galactic disc only three million years ago and is now moving farther above it.[103]

A third suggested alignment is some sort of planetary conjunction occurring on 21 December 2012; however, there will be no conjunction on that date.[104]Multi-planet alignments did occur in both 2000 and 2010, each with no ill result for the Earth.[105] Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System; larger than all other planets combined. When Jupiter is near opposition, the difference in gravitational force that the Earth experiences is less than 1% of the force that the Earth feels daily from the Moon.[106]

Geomagnetic reversal

Another idea tied to 2012 involves a geomagnetic reversal (often incorrectly referred to as a pole shift by proponents), possibly triggered by a massivesolar flare, that would release an energy equal to 100 billion atomic bombs.[107] This belief is supposedly supported by observations that the Earth’smagnetic field is weakening,[108] which could precede a reversal of the north and south magnetic poles, and the arrival of the next solar maximum, which is expected sometime around 2012.

Most scientific estimates, however, say that geomagnetic reversals take between 1,000 and 10,000 years to complete,[109] and do not start on any particular date.[110] Furthermore, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration now predicts that the solar maximum will peak in May 2013, not 2012, and that it will be fairly weak, with a below-average number of sunspots.[111] In any case, there is no scientific evidence linking a solar maximum to a geomagnetic reversal, which is driven by forces entirely within the Earth.[112] Instead, a solar maximum would be mostly notable for its effects on satellite and cellular phone communications.[113] David Morrison attributes the rise of the solar storm idea to physicist and science popularizer Michio Kaku, who claimed in an interview with Fox News that a solar peak in 2012 could be disastrous for orbiting satellites.[95]

Planet X/Nibiru

Main article: Nibiru cataclysm

Some believers in doomsday in 2012 claim that a planet called Planet X, or Nibiru, will collide with or pass by Earth in that year. This idea, which has appeared in various forms since 1995, initially predicted Doomsday in May 2003, but proponents later abandoned that date after it passed without incident.[114] The idea originated from claims of channeling of alien beings and has been widely ridiculed.[114][115] Astronomers have calculated that such an object so close to Earth would be visible to anyone looking up at the night sky.[114]

Other catastrophes

The Pleiades star cluster

The Pleiades, a star cluster whose supposed influence is sometimes tied to the 2012 phenomenon

Author Graham Hancock, in his book Fingerprints of the Gods, interpreted Coe’s remarks in Breaking the Maya Code[116] as evidence for the prophecy of a global cataclysm.[117] Filmmaker Roland Emmerich would later credit the book with inspiring his 2009 disaster film 2012.[118]

Other speculations regarding doomsday in 2012 have included predictions by the Web Bot project, a computer program that purports to predict the future using Internet chatter. However, commentators have rejected the programmers’ claims to have successfully predicted natural disasters, which web chatter could never predict, as opposed to human-caused disasters like stock market crashes.[119]

Also, the 2012 date has been loosely tied to the long-running concept of the Photon Belt, which predicts a form of interaction between Earth and Alcyone, the largest star of the Pleiades cluster.[120] Critics have argued that photons cannot form belts, that the Pleiades, located more than 400 light years away, could have no effect on Earth, and that the Solar System, rather than getting closer to the Pleiades, is in fact moving farther away from them.[121]

Some media outlets have tied the fact that the red supergiant star Betelgeuse will undergo a supernova at some point in the future to the 2012 phenomenon.[122] However, while Betelgeuse is certainly in the final stages of its life, and will die as a supernova, there is no way to predict the timing of the event to within 100,000 years.[123] To be a threat to Earth, a supernova would need to be as close as 25 light years to the Solar System. Betelgeuse is roughly 600 light years away, and so its supernova will not affect Earth.[124] In December 2011, NASA’s Francis Reddy issued a press release debunking the possibility of a supernova occurring in 2012.[125]

Another claim involves alien invasion. In December 2010, an article, first published in examiner.com and later referenced in the English-language edition ofPravda[126] claimed, citing a Second Digitized Sky Survey photograph as evidence, that SETI had detected three large spacecraft due to arrive at Earth in 2012.[127] Astronomer and debunker Phil Plait noted that by using the small-angle formula, one could determine that if the object in the photo were as large as claimed, it would have had to be closer to Earth than the Moon, which would mean it would already have arrived.[127] In January 2011, Seth Shostak, chief astronomer of SETI, issued a press release debunking the claims.[126]

Public reaction

A small village in a green field stands before a low, blue mountain peak

Pic de BugarachCamps-sur-l’Agly, France; a target of “esoterics” who believe that some great transition will occur in 2012

The phenomenon has spread widely since coming to public notice, particularly on the Internet. Hundreds of thousands of websites have been posted on the subject.[95] “Ask an Astrobiologist”, a NASA public outreach website, has received over 5,000 questions from the public on the subject since 2007,[120] some asking whether they should kill themselves, their children or their pets.[95] In May 2012, an Ipsos poll of 16,000 adults in 21 countries found that 8 percent had experienced fear or anxiety over the possibility of the world ending in December 2012, while an average of 10 percent agreed with the statement “the Mayan calendar, which some say ‘ends’ in 2012, marks the end of the world”, with responses as high as 20 percent inChina, 13 percent in RussiaTurkeyJapan and Korea, and 12 percent in the United States, where sales of private underground blast shelters have increased noticeably since 2009.[128][129] At least one suicide has been directly linked to fear of a 2012 apocalypse,[130]with several more anecdotally reported.[131] A panel of scientists questioned on the topic at a plenary session at the Astronomical Society of the Pacificcontended that the Internet has played a substantial role in allowing this doomsday date to gain more traction than previous similar panics.[131]

Beginning in 2000, the small French village of Bugarach, population 189, began receiving visits from “esoterics”—mystic believers who have concluded that the local mountain, Pic de Bugarach, is the ideal location to weather the transformative events of 2012. In 2011, the local mayor, Jean-Pierre Delord, began voicing fears to the international press that the small town would be overwhelmed by an influx of thousands of visitors in 2012, even suggesting he may call in the army.[132][133] “We’ve seen a huge rise in visitors”, Delord told The Independent in March 2012. “Already this year more than 20,000 people have climbed right to the top, and last year we had 10,000 hikers, which was a significant rise on the previous 12 months. They think Pic de Bugarach is ‘un garage à ovnis’ [a garage for UFOs]. The villagers are exasperated: the exaggerated importance of something which they see as completely removed from reality is bewildering. After 21 December, this will surely return to normal.”[134] In December 2012, the French government placed 100 police and firefighters around both Bugarach and Pic de Bugarach, limiting access to potential visitors.[135]

In Russia, inmates of a women’s prison apparently experienced “a collective mass psychosis” in the weeks leading up to the supposed doomsday, while residents of a factory town near Moscow reportedly emptied a supermarket of matches, candles, food and other supplies. The Minister of Emergency Situations declared in response that according to “methods of monitoring what is occurring on the planet Earth,” there would be no apocalypse in December.[136]

The Turkish village of Sirince, near Ephesus, expects to receive over 60,000 visitors on 21 December 2012, as New Age mystics believe its “positive energy” will aid in weathering the catastrophe.[137]

In China, several doomsday cultists have been arrested, and shoppers have hoarded supplies of candles in anticipation of coming darkness. On 14 December 2012, a man in Henan province, whom authorities suspect of being “influenced” by the apocalypse prediction, attacked and wounded 23 children with a knife. Academics in China attribute the widespread belief in the 2012 doomsday in their country to a lack of scientific literacy and a mistrust of the government-controlled media.[138]

In Brazil, Décio Colla, the Mayor of the City of São Francisco de PaulaRio Grande do Sul, has mobilized the population to prepare for the end of the world by stocking up on food and supplies.[139][140] In the city of Corguinho, in the Mato Grosso do Sul, a colony is being built for survivors of the tragedy.[141] InAlto Paraíso de Goiás, the hotels also make specific reservations for prophetic dates.[142] On 11 October 2012, in the Brazilian city of Teresina, police interrupted what was believed to have been an attempted mass suicide by up to one hundred members of a cult headed by self-proclaimed prophet Luis Pereira dos Santos, who predicted the end of the world on the feast day of Our Lady of Aparecida. Santos was subsequently arrested.[143]

In December 2012, Vatican astronomer Rev Jose Funes wrote in the Vatican newspaper L’Osservatore Romano that apocalyptic theories around 2012 were “not even worth discussing”.[144]

Also in December 2012, the Uritorco in CórdobaArgentina was decided to be closed on December 21, as a mass suicide had been proposed in Facebook to take part there.[145]

Cultural influence

See also: 2012 in fiction

The 2012 phenomenon has been discussed or referenced in several media. Several TV documentaries, as well as many contemporary fictional references to the year 2012 refer to 21 December as the day of a cataclysmic event.

The UFO conspiracy TV series The X-Files cites 22 December 2012 as the date for an alien colonization of the Earth and mentions the Mayan calendar “stopping” on this date.[2]

The History Channel has aired a handful of special series on doomsday that include analysis of 2012 theories, such as Decoding the Past (2005–2007),2012, End of Days (2006), Last Days on Earth (2006), Seven Signs of the Apocalypse (2007), and Nostradamus 2012 (2008).[146] The Discovery Channel also aired 2012 Apocalypse in 2009, suggesting that massive solar stormsmagnetic pole reversal, earthquakes, supervolcanoes, and other drastic natural events may occur in 2012.[147] In 2012, the National Geographic Channel launched a show called Doomsday Preppers, a documentary series about survivalists preparing for various cataclysms, including the 2012 doomsday.[148]

Hundreds of books have been published on the topic.[95] The bestselling book of 2009,[149] Dan Brown‘s The Lost Symbol, featured a coded mock email number (2456282.5) that decodes to the Julian date for “December 21, 2012”.[150]

The 2009 disaster film 2012 was inspired by the phenomenon, and advance promotion prior to its release included a stealth marketing campaign in which TV spots and websites from the fictional “Institute for Human Continuity” called on people to prepare for the end of the world. As these promotions did not mention the film itself, many viewers believed them to be real and contacted astronomers in panic.[151][152] Although the campaign was heavily criticized,[95] the film became one of the most successful of its year, grossing nearly $770 million worldwide.[153] An article in The Daily Telegraphattributed the widespread fear of the 2012 phenomenon in China to the film, which was a smash hit in that country because it depicts the Chinese building the “survival arks”.[154]

Lars von Trier‘s 2011 film Melancholia features a plot in which a planet emerges from behind the Sun onto a collision course with Earth.[155] Announcing his company’s purchase of the film, the head of Magnolia Pictures said in a press release, “As the 2012 apocalypse is upon us, it is time to prepare for a cinematic last supper”.[156]

The phenomenon has also inspired several pop music hits. As early as 1997, “A Certain Shade of Green” by Incubus referred to the mystical belief that a shift in perception would arrive in 2012 (“Are you gonna stand around till 2012 A.D.? / What are you waiting for, a certain shade of green?”). More recent hits include “2012 (It Ain’t the End)” (2010) performed by Jay Sean and “Till the World Ends” (2011) performed by Britney Spears.

In February 2012, American automotive company GM aired an advertisement during the annual Super Bowl football game in which a group of friends driveChevrolet Silverados through the ruins of human civilization following the 2012 apocalypse. (When the whereabouts of one of their friends is queried, it is revealed that he died because he drove a Ford.)[157]

In 2011, the Mexico tourism board stated its intentions to use the year 2012, without its apocalyptic connotations, as a means to revive Mexico’s tourism industry, which had suffered as the country gained a reputation for drug wars and kidnapping. The initiative hopes to draw on the mystical appeal of the Maya ruins.[158] On 21 December 2011, the Maya town of Tapachula in Chiapas activated an eight-foot digital clock counting down the days until the end of b’ak’tun 13, while in Izapa, a nearby archaeological site, Maya priests burned incense and prayed.[159]

La ciencia contra las predicciones mayas

La ciencia contra las predicciones mayas

Fuente El Universal

Sin bien se ha hecho una gran ejercicio de comunicación de que el 21 de diciembre no será el fin del mundo, apocalípticos siguen insistiendo que este fatal fenómeno sucederá, por ello la ciencia ha dado explicaciones para las supuesta ‘predicciones mayas’

A pocos días de que se cumpla el plazo del 21 de diciembre, diferentes personajes como la NASA y el Vaticano han declarado como falsas la supuestas predicciones mayas que vaticinan el fin del mundo, a pesar de ello seguidores de estas visiones apocalípticas continúan.

2012-doomsdayDe acuerdo al diario ABC.es, dependencias estadounidenses han recibido miles de correos electrónicos pidiendo instrucciones sobre como comportarse ante la catástrofe que se espera, incluso personas han amenazado con quitarse la vida.

Sin embargo, hasta el día de hoy no se ha reportado ningún comportamiento extraño en la Tierra, ni en el cielo y por su parte el Sol mantiene su actividad normal.

Por lo que las preocupaciones son exageradas, además diferentes especialistas de diferentes áreas de estudio como Guillermo Bernal, epigrafista de la UNAM, aseguran que el fin del calendario de cuenta larga representa unrenacimiento simbólico, además de que se aclarado por diferentes fuentes que la concepción maya del tiempo es cíclica por lo que no hay un fin específico, sino nuevos comienzos.

Diferentes astrónomos, y la NASA misma, han planteado que la astronomía no ve como posibles las prediccionesya que no se han visto cambios evidentes en los campos magnéticos o en el cielo recientemente.

Para dejarlo más claro presentamos los supuestos hechos fatídicos que sucederán este viernes y las razones científicas que aseguran que no sucederán.

Ráfaga solar

Uno de los postulados del supuesto fin del mundo es el que dice que una inesperada y enorme llamarada solar destruirá toda la vida que se conoce en el planeta. Esto se ha basado en que el 21 de diciembre ha coincidido con el regular ciclo solar que sucede cada 11 años y en el cual el astro presenta mayor numero de eyecciones de masa coronal y manchas solares, algo que se tiene bien estudiado.

La debilidad de este argumento reside en que el punto máximo de actividad solar se tiene programado para finales de 2013, además de que no es uno de los ciclos más activos que ha tenido el Sol desde que se tiene registro del fenómeno.

Una llamarada solar no sería suficiente para destruir a la humanidad y a todo ser viviente, el mayor riesgo es para los sistemas eléctricos y de telecomunicaciones.

Sin embargo, el Sol sí será culpable de la destrucción del planeta pero eso sucederá hasta dentro de 4.5 mil millones de años, cuando el astro agote su combustible y se expanda hasta alcanzar la órbita de Venus, en ese momento la Tierra será inhabitable.
Un planeta o asteroide se impactarán en la Tierra

Mayan-Calendar-Doomsday-PredictionUna de las predicciones que se han hecho y difundido es que el planeta recibirá el choque de objeto celeste con dimensiones enormes que destruirán a la humanidad. Uno de estos objetos es el mitológico planeta Nibiru el cual está del otro lado del Sol y se acerca ala Tierra cada 3 mil 600 años.

Existe la posibilidad de que en los extremos del Sistema Solar existan objetos celestes que no se han podido captar aún. Si este imaginario planeta se estuviera acercando su avistamiento ya habría sido reportado por alguna agencia espacial, ya que habría existido anomalías gravitacionales en el Sistema Solar o bien sería un objeto que a simple vista se observaría más grande que la Luna.

En cuanto a asteroides, si bien se ha reportado el acercamiento de estos objetos, como el Tutatis que pasó cerca de nuestro planeta el 12 de diciembre pasado, hasta hoy no se ha reportado ningún objeto que presente un peligro inminente para la humanidad, esto no quiere decir que en el futuro lejano sea una realidad que pueda suceder.

Esconder este tipo de información, para los que existe un complot de los gobiernos, es imposible debido a una basta red de astrónomos aficionados que observan el cielo y catalogan asteroides frecuentemente, como sucedió a mediado de octubre pasado, por lo que de existir un fenómeno como tal acercándose a la tierra sería complicado.

Inversión del campo magnético

Este fenómeno consiste en que el polo magnético norte y sur del planeta se invierten, lo cual sucede entre una y cinco veces cada millón de años, y la última vez fue hace 780 mil años, y por ahora no hay indicios de que un proceso como este vaya a suceder en el futuro próximo.

Durante este proceso el planeta se encuentra más expuesto a la radiación cósmica y solar pero no representa ningún peligro para la vida. Argumento que se da en otra supuesta predicción maya.

Hasta ahora no hay evidencia de que esta antigua civilización dotará de importancia a los campos magnéticos y a las llamaradas solares, según el antropólogo y astrónomo Anthony Aveni de la Universidad de Colgate en EU.
Alineación galáctica

endtime.wheelEl 21 de diciembre, además del solsticio de invierno sucederá una alineación del Sol y la Tierra con el centro de la Vía Láctea, lo que ha generado la creencia de que oscuros poderes se abrirán camino con dicho acomodamiento para destruir la Tierra.

Este tipo de fenómenos geométricos no provocan ningún efecto sobre los objetos celestes que lo componen. Además, el centro de la galaxia no se puede determinar con precisión, debido a que la posición del planeta no permite conocer su tamaño y forma real.

Intensa actividad volcánica

Los seguidores de las visiones apocalítpcas de este 21 de diciembre aseguran que un súpervolcán entrará en actividad lo que acarreará el la destrucción de la vida.

Si bien es cierto que enormes erupciones volcánicas, como la de Sumatra, han estado a punto de crear grandes catástrofes, debido procesos que crearon algo parecido a un invierno nuclear, donde la humanidad casi desaparece, hoy es bien sabido cuáles son los puntos volcánicos con mayor actividad del planeta, los cuales son monitoreados constantemente.

Las súpereurpciones han sido poco frecuentes en la historia del planeta, y se calcula que en promedio sucede una cada 700 mil años, en la actualidad no hay pruebas o indicios de que un suceso como este vaya a desencadenarse en un futuro próximo.

A Few Days From The End Of The 13th Maya Baktun Calendar in Maya Riviera

A Few Days From The End Of The 13th Maya Baktun Calendar in Maya Riviera we leave here a compilation of the meaning and analogies of the Maya’s 13th Baktun:

The Baktun Mayan Calendar, Judas, and the end of mankind in this system

The Long Count Mayan Calendar or the Baktun Mayan Calendar has some astonishing features for a bible student.

It is described in wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_calendar

The creation date for this calendar was August 11, 3114 BC Gregorian (true solar).

It has 360 day years (Tuns) and 20 year periods called Katuns and 400 year periods (144,000 days long) called Baktuns. We know today that the sun is 400x larger than the moon and is 400x further away from the earth than the moon is. This is why the moon fits perfectly over the sun in a total solar eclipse. But how did the Mayans know this? For in scriptural terms 400x is 400 years which are 144,000 days, which is the largest time period they used in their calendar!

We also know that the Kingdom of God will be run by 144,000 heavenly kings and 144,000 earthly kings. In fact the sun and the moon declare this since the one dominates the other by 400x which is 144,000 days a king for a day in bible symbolism.

So looking at this calendar spiritually, it has heavenly knowledge within it that was not known to mankind at the time it was used by the Mayans, at least 1400 years ago.

Now the 13th Baktun, (the 13th 144,000 day period since the Mayan creation date of August 11, 3114 BC) ends on 2012December21 according to most internet sources (wikipedia has it ending on December20).

But 12x 146097 days (12x 400 true solar years) takes us from 3114August11 BC to 1687August11 AD. And then 118836 more solar days take us to 2012December21 (for a total of 144,000x 13 = 1,872,000 solar days). So if the first day of the calendar is August11, then the last day of the 13th Baktun is 2012December20 since this is an inclusive count. The reader can try this on the BLC which can be downloaded here.

So if we identify the end of the 13th Baktun with the end of Adamic mankind in this system and the 14th Baktun with the start of the full rulership of mankind in the next system by 144,000 heavenly 1NC kings and 144,000 earthly 2NC kings, then the Mayan calendar is saying that we must have mankind in this system ending on 2012Tebbeth2/3 (which is 2012December20). But we presently have the last rapture of the faithful starting on 2012Chislev24 and ending on 2012Tebbeth24/25 and we have the last adamic man dying on or before 2013Iyyar27. So after 260 chronological mistakes we arrive at the same month for the end of faithful mankind that the Mayans had 1400 years ago. That is too much of a coincidence.

This looks to us like an attempt by Satan to upstage the work of the last true church.

In that regard the second true church may have got as far as the LWs have presently reached chronologically. So the date of the end of adamic man might have been known before the first recorded copies of the Mayan calendar came about. In any event there is an incredible agreement between LW chronology for the end of adamic man and the Mayan calendar chronology for the end of the 13th 144,000 day age since their creation date!

Since this calendar is so full of 400x and 144,000x it may well have started with the first humans to be born again.  So August11, 3114 may be the creation date of the first humans to be born again by holy spirit baptism. The Mayan calendar may therefore be a version of the calendar used in heaven.

Alternatively 3114August11 could have been the day when the demons descended or when they had their first Nephilim children with human women. In other words Satan was copying the activity of the heavenly calendar with his demonic human procreation.

So the entire period of 13 baktuns would begin with the first humans being born again as angels and end with last humans being raptured to be angels. In fact Satan would not be permitted to possess humans unless they had associated angels. So the holy spirit baptism preceded the demonic possession or demonic descent.

2012 phenomenon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A date inscription in the Mayan Long Count on the east side of Stela C from Quirigua showing the date for the last Creation. It is read as 13.0.0.0.0 4 Ajaw 8 Cumku and is usually correlated as 11 or 13 August, 3114 BCE on the Gregorian calendar. The date of 13.0.0.0.0 4 Ajaw 3 K’ank’in is usually correlated as 21 or 23 December 2012.
The 2012 phenomenon comprises a range of eschatological beliefs according to which cataclysmic or transformative events will occur on 21 December 2012. This date is regarded as the end-date of a 5125-year-long cycle in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. Various astronomical alignments and numerological formulae have been proposed as pertaining to this date, though none have been accepted by mainstream scholarship.

A New Age interpretation of this transition is that the date marks the start of time in which Earth and its inhabitants may undergo a positive physical or spiritual transformation, and that 21 December 2012 may mark the beginning of a new era. Others suggest that the date marks the end of the world or a similar catastrophe. Scenarios suggested for the end of the world include the arrival of the next solar maximum, an interaction between Earth and the black hole at the center of the galaxy, or Earth’s collision with a planet called “Nibiru”.

Scholars from various disciplines have dismissed the idea of such cataclysmic events occurring in 2012. Professional Mayanist scholars state that predictions of impending doom are not found in any of the extant classic Maya accounts, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar “ends” in 2012 misrepresents Maya history and culture, while astronomers have rejected the various proposed doomsday scenarios as pseudoscience, stating that they conflict with simple astronomical observations.

What You Should Know About 2012: Answers to 13 Questions

Is it really time for the Apocalypse?Published on December 30, 2011 by John W. Hoopes, Ph.D. in Reality Check

Published at Psycologytoday.com
1. Who are “the Maya”?

The term “the Maya” is about as nebulous as “the Americans” or “the Europeans.” Technically, “the Maya” refers to a wide variety of Maya peoples, both ancient and modern, whose cultural heritage includes one of about thirty different Mayan languages. Their native territory is located in eastern Mexico (especially Chiapas and the Yucatan Peninsula), Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and western El Salvador. Although it is impossible to say for certain what languages were spoken, archaeologists trace the origins of Maya culture back at least 3000 years on the basis of continuities in pottery styles, architecture, burials, and other features. Contrary to popular beliefs, the descendants of ancient Mayans never disappeared or “went away.” In fact, there are probably more Mayan speakers today than at any time in history: About six million altogether. During what’s known as the Classic Period (AD 200-900), the ancient Maya were organized into polities similar to ancient Greek city-states, including a rivalry between two main centers–Tikal and Calakmul–that was as heated as that between Athens and Sparta. What we call “the ancient Maya” were never unified under a common government or religious system. They were organized as warring states whose ideologies differed and were modified according to the needs of individual rulers. The beliefs and traditions of different Maya settlements varied enormously. That makes it difficult to say much with certainty about “the Maya” belief systems. In fact, the very concept of “the Maya” is a modern convention of questionable value for describing the complexity of these cultures.

Related Articles
Why the World Won’t End, In Seven Easy Steps
So You Want to Learn an Endangered Language…
Why Prefer Mystery to Knowledge?
It’s About Time
What Psychology Can Tell You About Your Extraterrestrial Beliefs
Find a Therapist
Search for a mental health professional near you.

Find Local:
Acupuncturists
Chiropractors
Massage Therapists
Dentists
and more!

2. What is the Long Count calendar and what does it have to do with 2012?

The ancient Maya tracked time according to increasingly larger cycles. How they did this has been understood in detail since the late 19th century, when American journalist Joseph T. Goodman successfully deciphered the complicated system of the Maya calendar. He published his results in 1897, describing a “Long Count” system of a “count of days” based on several units or periods of increasingly larger size: the k’in (1 day), winal (20 days), tun (360 days), k’atun (7200 days), and bak’tun (144,000 days). The ancient Maya kept track of time using this system, which was combined with additional counts of 260 days (the tzolk’in) and 365 days (the haab) to produce Long Count dates. Goodman believed there was also a larger “Great Cycle” of 13 bak’tuns (1,872,000 days) and determined that the start of the present Great Cycle was on 13.0.0.0.0 4 Ajaw 8 Cumk’u (that is 13 bak’tunob, 0 k’atunob, 0 tunob, 0 winalob, and 0 k’inob, followed by counts on the tzolk’in and haab). Later scholarship showed that this was a sacred “Creation” date for the ancient Maya, who referred to it in their mythology as a kind of “birth” of the present world. The Gregorian equivalent of this date is August 11, 3114 BCE. The next day was 0.0.0.0.1, with each day clicking another unit in the count. According to scholars who support Goodman’s idea of a 13-bak’tun Great Cycle, the current period will conclude on 13.0.0.0.0 4 Ajaw 3 K’ank’in, the Gregorian equivalent of which is December 21, 2012 (or possibly December 23, or yet something else…)

It’s important to remember that calendars are complicated! The Gregorian calendar system, currently used in the Americas, Europe, and other countries with heavily Western influence, is one that carries with it the legacy of many changes, some of which originated with the Roman (Julian) calendar with modifications under Pope Gregory XIII (1502-1585), the head of the Roman Catholic church at the time of the Spanish Conquest (for whom the calendar is named). Explaining the magical or divinatory aspects that many people believe about them is even more complicated, but it is a problem literally as old as time.

3. Does the Maya calendar end on December 21, 2012?

No. It’s not even clear that the date will represent the end of a 13-bak’tun cycle. Goodman’s theory was that the present 13-bak’tun Great Cycle was the 54th in an even larger Grand Era, comprised of 73 Great Cycles. However, some ancient Maya daykeepers appear to have favored counts in 20-bak’tun cycles. The Maya calendar does not end with a 13- or 20-bak’tun count. The Maya projected dates far into the future. For example, one inscription predicts that the anniversary of the coronation of K’inich Janaab’ Pakal, a 7th century Maya king of Palenque, will still be celebrated in AD 4772. Epigrapher David Stuart has pointed out that there are Maya dates that project farther into the future than modern astronomers project backward to the origin of the universe some 13.7 billion years ago.

Scholars are currently divided over whether the correct Gregorian correlation with 13.0.0.0.0 4 Ajaw 3 K’ank’in is December 21 or December 23, 2012 or even some other date. The date of December 21 has been especially popular for many intepretations because it happens to fall on a solstice (winter in the northern hemisphere and summer in the southern). Whether this was intentional or fortuitous remains a matter of debate.

4. What’s the origin of the claims about the end of the world?

Shortly after Goodman’s work was first published, German scholar Ernst Förstemann interpreted the symbols and images on the last page of an pre-Hispanic Maya book called the Dresden Codex as references to the end of the world in a cataclysmic flood that he interpreted as “destruction of the world,” “apocalypse,” and “the end of the world.” Förstemann’s ideas were repeated by American archaeologist Sylvanus Morley in a 1915 book on ancient Maya hieroglyphic writing. Morley added his own embellishments, writing “Finally, on the last page of the manuscript, is depicted the Destruction of the World… Here, indeed, is portrayed with a graphic touch the final all-engulfing cataclysm” in the form of a Great Flood. These comments were later repeated in Morley’s popular book The Ancient Maya (1946). Mayanists disagree about these interpretations, with some suggesting that the image represents the annual arrival of the rainy season, not a cataclysmic flood.

The ideas of Goodman, Förstemann, and Morley influenced American archaeologist Michael Coe, of Yale University, who also interpreted elements of Aztec mythology, particularly the “Legend of the Five Suns” (first recorded in the 1550s) as evidence for ancient beliefs in cyclical periods of destruction. He summarized his ideas in a popular textbook, The Maya (1966). In each edition (there have now been eight), Coe associated the completion of the 13th bak’tun with “Armageddon,” a reference from Christian beliefs expressed in the New Testament (in the Book of Revelation) that there will be a final, world-destroying battle associated with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. He also noted (based on Aztec beliefs) that the present world would be destroyed by earthquakes. Coe never thought this would actually occur. He was simply trying to express what he thought the ancient Maya actually believed using Cold War lingo so as to grab the imagination of his readers.

 

 

A pocos días para que termine el 13 baktún y comience una nueva era basada en los ciclos planetarios habrá rituales, conciertos, charlas y recorridos

A pocos días para que termine el 13 baktún y comience una nueva era basada en los ciclos planetarios habrá rituales, conciertos, charlas y recorridos.

Yucatán y Riviera May: cero catástrofe, pura cultura viva

Con Información de El Universal
baktun2El Festival de la Cultura Maya comenzó el 14 de diciembre y terminará el 22 de diciembre. No podría tener mejor tema para su primera edición: el “Tiempo”, el comienzo de un nuevo ciclo (el 14 baktún), expresado en actividades culturales, artísticas y académicas que buscan preservar las tradiciones antiguas, como es el caso de la ceremonia maya: una convocatoria a los cuatro puntos cardinales y elementos para bendecir la Tierra, el Universo, pedir buenas cosechas y mejores tiempos y, sobre todo, prosperidad.

Una de estas ceremonias, comenta Saúl Ancona Salazar, secretario de Fomento Turístico de Yucatán, se celebrará el 21 de diciembre, en la explanada del Centro de Convenciones Yucatán Siglo XXI; otra más el 19, en la plaza grande de Izamal, Pueblo Mágico de fachadas amarillas.

Todo viajero debe dedicarle, al menos, un día para saber del encanto de este lugar: su arquitectura colonial; el atrio de la iglesia, el segundo más grande del mundo; el recorrido por los talleres artesanales y las rutas marcadas en bicicleta. Por si fuera poco, Izamal está rodeada de cuatro pirámides.

En Valladolid, otra ciudad colonial a 45 minutos de Chichén Itzá, se harán más rituales, como el del Fuego Sagrado en el cenote Zaci, el día 21, o la del renacer del pueblo maya y la humanidad, el 22 de diciembre, en el mismo lugar.

baktunRegresando a Mérida, al centro de convenciones, el 21 de diciembre pasarán varias cosas: la apertura del Gran Museo del Mundo Maya; la Gran Noche del Universo y la Cultura Maya, en la que, de acuerdo con el secretario Ancona, se montarán telescopios. También participará la Orquesta Sinfónica de Yucatán y el taller coreográfico de la UNAM a lo largo del festival, así como jaraneros, recitales de piano de música yucateca y grupos de sonidos prehispánicos.

Los temas de las conferencias prometen ser apetecibles, como la de Rigoberta Menchú, mañana, sobre la importancia de la civilización maya; otras eminencias especializadas hablarán de la cosmovisión, las ceremonias y tradiciones, la danza y los mitos, la medicina tradicional y sobre el jaguar, visto como un ser sagrado.

Habrá espectáculos en Chichén, Uxmal y Dzibilchaltún. En este último se prepara una visita para recibir el solsticio. Además, el INAH otorgó permisos a touroperadoras y grupos para hacer meditaciones y rituales, en estos sitios.

En www.festivalculturamaya.com está el programa de actividades, costos de entrada a zonas arqueológicas; paquetes, hoteles y recorridos con touroperadoras serias, asegura el secretario.

Expediciones a la medida
En internet hay cantidad de agencias de viaje, sobre todo de Estados Unidos, que venden recorridos con el título “las profecías mayas” o “paquetes del fin del mundo”. Suena muy atractivo, pero si el viajero desea tener un encuentro auténtico con la cultura maya, en México encontrará buenas opciones con guías capacitados que contarán historias menos alucinadas y más reales.

Catherwood Travels es una empresa que diseña viajes a la medida, en la península de Yucatán, Chiapas y Tabasco. Más allá del típico tour, crea experiencias amenas de aprendizaje, con guías seleccionados, garantía de ser portavoces de un conocimiento apegado a la realidad.

Arqueólogos, historiadores y antropólogos dirigen las travesías, que también tienen la característica de ser privadas y exclusivas: alojamiento en haciendas henequeras, hoy restauradas y convertidas en hoteles de lujo que conservan la arquitectura y la esencia de sus años de bonanza; una cocina artesanal, con ingredientes de la región, apegada a los sabores de la península; acceso a cenotes y propiedades de los siglos XV y XVI, cerrados al público; la búsqueda de sitios arqueológicos menos conocidos, pero igual de ricos en contenido, y encuentro con comunidades mayas.

Si eres de la creencia de que el nuevo ciclo trae cambios a nivel espiritual, solicita -además de estar presente en una zona arqueológica en el solsticio de invierno- un ritual de purificación y bendición en un cenote, dirigida por un sacerdote maya.

El mismo 21, Hacienda Temozón, en Yucatán, dará una cena con un menú prehispánico de recetas mayas olvidadas. La velada tiene preparadas una ceremonia maya, la plática de un arqueólogo y danzas. Hay que reservar con tiempo (Tel.  (999) 923 81 52. www.haciendatemozon.com).

Incluye en tu expedición: paseos a caballo y en bicicleta, vuelos en helicóptero, buceo en cenotes con un arqueólogo subacuático, kayak, clases de cocina y una labor voluntaria en comunidades, a través de la Fundación Haciendas del Mundo Maya.

Si deseas alojarte en Mérida, Angélica Espinosa, directora de Marketing de Catherwood, sugiere casonas antiguas convertidas en hoteles boutique, como Rosas y Chocolate, Casa Lecanda y Casa Azul. Para el solsticio de invierno, Chichén Itzá y Uxmal son donde debes estar, siempre y cuando no los conozcas.

Pero si quieres evitar las hordas de turistas, ella recomienda Ek Balam, donde se han encontrado las únicas figuras aladas de la región; Mayapán, que es como Chichén, pero en miniatura, y algún punto de la Ruta Puuc, sitios de arquitectura finamente decorada, entre ellos: Labná, Sayil y Kabah. (Tel.  (999) 920 2632. catherwoodtravels.com)

 

Si estás en Riviera Maya, Altournative promueve encuentros con las comunidades y te lleva a Chichén y otras zonas de Yucatán

Iluminan árbol sagrado de los mayas en Campeche

Iluminan árbol sagrado de los mayas en Campeche

Fuente: El Universal

Pobladores de Poc Boc celebran el fin e inicio de una era como lo marca el calendario Maya con el encendido del Ceibo

La noche del lunes, el árbol sagrado de los mayas, el mítico árbol de Ceiba, fue iluminado durante la celebración del fin de una era y el inicio de otra, como señala el calendario Maya.

arbol_maya_encendidoEn el pueblo de Poc Boc, del municipio de Hecelchakan, autoridades estatales y municipales iluminaron con luces rojas el árbol de Ceiba, con el que le otorgan el titulo de “Patrimonio Natural Histórico y Cultural del Municipio de Hecelchakan”.

El decreto refiere la historia de tradición oral, que indica que el majestuoso árbol de 30 metros de altura fue sembrado en 1875 por la señora Juana Trejo y su esposo Menegildo Espadas Moguel.

Poc Boc es un santuario regional junto con su capilla de los Santos Reyes, y su fiesta del 6 de enero recibe a miles de feligreses todos los años.

“La Ceiba es el árbol sagrado de los Mayas, nuestra raza madre viva y fortaleza, es el árbol sobreviviente del tiempo de huracanes y centellas”, indica el decreto municipal.

Beyond 2012: Why the World Won’t End, NASA, Maya Prophecies missinterpreted

Beyond 2012: Why the World Won’t End

Beyond 2012:  NASA Dec. 21, 2012, won’t be the end of the world as we know, however, it will be another winter solstice.

Contrary to some of the common beliefs out there, the claims behind the end of the world quickly unravel when pinned down to the 2012 timeline.

Below, NASA Scientists answer questions on the following 2012 topics:

Source: NASA

Question (Q): Are there any threats to the Earth in 2012? Many Internet websites say the world will end in December 2012.

 Answer (A):The world will not end in 2012. Our planet has been getting along just fine for more than 4 billion years, and credible scientists worldwide know of no threat associated with 2012.


Q: What is the origin of the prediction that the world will end in 2012?

 A: The story started with claims that Nibiru, a supposed planet discovered by the Sumerians, is headed toward Earth. This catastrophe was initially predicted for May 2003, but when nothing happened the doomsday date was moved forward to December 2012 and linked to the end of one of the cycles in the ancient Mayan calendar at the winter solstice in 2012 — hence the predicted doomsday date of December 21, 2012.


Q: Does the Mayan calendar end in December 2012?

 A: Just as the calendar you have on your kitchen wall does not cease to exist after December 31, the Mayan calendar does not cease to exist on December 21, 2012. This date is the end of the Mayan long-count period but then — just as your calendar begins again on January 1 — another long-count period begins for the Mayan calendar.


Q: Is NASA predicting a “total blackout” of Earth on Dec. 23 to Dec. 25?

 A: Absolutely not. Neither NASA nor any other scientific organization is predicting such a blackout. The false reports on this issue claim that some sort of “alignment of the Universe” will cause a blackout. There is no such alignment (see next question). Some versions of this rumor cite an emergency preparedness message from NASA Administrator Charles Bolden. This is simply a message encouraging people to be prepared for emergencies, recorded as part of a wider government preparedness campaign. It never mentions a blackout.
›Watch the Video


Q: Could planets align in a way that impacts Earth?

 A: There are no planetary alignments in the next few decades and even if these alignments were to occur, their effects on the Earth would be negligible. One major alignment occurred in 1962, for example, and two others happened during 1982 and 2000. Each December the Earth and sun align with the approximate center of the Milky Way Galaxy but that is an annual event of no consequence.
› More about alignment

“There apparently is a great deal of interest in celestial bodies, and their locations and trajectories at the end of the calendar year 2012. Now, I for one love a good book or movie as much as the next guy. But the stuff flying around through cyberspace, TV and the movies is not based on science. There is even a fake NASA news release out there…”
– Don Yeomans, NASA senior research scientist

Q: Is there a planet or brown dwarf called Nibiru or Planet X or Eris that is approaching the Earth and threatening our planet with widespread destruction?

 A: Nibiru and other stories about wayward planets are an Internet hoax. There is no factual basis for these claims. If Nibiru or Planet X were real and headed for an encounter with the Earth in 2012, astronomers would have been tracking it for at least the past decade, and it would be visible by now to the naked eye. Obviously, it does not exist. Eris is real, but it is a dwarf planet similar to Pluto that will remain in the outer solar system; the closest it can come to Earth is about 4 billion miles.


Q: What is the polar shift theory? Is it true that the Earth’s crust does a 180-degree rotation around the core in a matter of days if not hours?

 A: A reversal in the rotation of Earth is impossible. There are slow movements of the continents (for example Antarctica was near the equator hundreds of millions of years ago), but that is irrelevant to claims of reversal of the rotational poles. However, many of the disaster websites pull a bait-and-switch to fool people. They claim a relationship between the rotation and the magnetic polarity of Earth, which does change irregularly, with a magnetic reversal taking place every 400,000 years on average. As far as we know, such a magnetic reversal doesn’t cause any harm to life on Earth. Scientists believe a magnetic reversal is very unlikely to happen in the next few millennia.
› More about polar shift


Q: Is the Earth in danger of being hit by a meteor in 2012?

 A: The Earth has always been subject to impacts by comets and asteroids, although big hits are very rare. The last big impact was 65 million years ago, and that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Today NASA astronomers are carrying out a survey called the Spaceguard Survey to find any large near-Earth asteroids long before they hit. We have already determined that there are no threatening asteroids as large as the one that killed the dinosaurs. All this work is done openly with the discoveries posted every day on the NASA Near-Earth Object Program Office website, so you can see for yourself that nothing is predicted to hit in 2012.


Q: How do NASA scientists feel about claims of the world ending in 2012?

 A: For any claims of disaster or dramatic changes in 2012, where is the science? Where is the evidence? There is none, and for all the fictional assertions, whether they are made in books, movies, documentaries or over the Internet, we cannot change that simple fact. There is no credible evidence for any of the assertions made in support of unusual events taking place in December 2012.
› Why you need not fear a supernova
› About super volcanoes


Q: Is there a danger from giant solar storms predicted for 2012?

 A: Solar activity has a regular cycle, with peaks approximately every 11 years. Near these activity peaks, solar flares can cause some interruption of satellite communications, although engineers are learning how to build electronics that are protected against most solar storms. But there is no special risk associated with 2012. The next solar maximum will occur in the 2012-2014 time frame and is predicted to be an average solar cycle, no different than previous cycles throughout history.
› Video: Solar Storms
› More about solar storms

 


Addition information concerning 2012 is available on the Web, at:

Descarta la NASA que se vaya a acabar el mundo, profecías mayas han sido malinterpretadas

Expertos de la agencia espacial estadunidense afirman que las profecías mayas han sido malinterpretadas y que abunda la malinformación

WASHINGTON, 3 de diciembre.- A pocos días de que llegue el apocalíptico 21 de diciembre, la NASA descartó que se vaya a acabar el mundo.

Durante un videochat de Google+, varios expertos de la agencia espacial estadunidense concluyeron que no había por qué preocuparse, pese a que las profecías mayas dicen lo contrario.

“Se ha hecho una mala interpretación”, afirmó el astrobiólogo David Morrison, quien afirmó haber recibido miles alrededor de 5 mil preguntas sobre el fin del mundo en su blog ‘Ask an astrobiologist’ (Pregúntale a un astrobiólogo).

Aclaró que el calendario maya sólo refiere a que el día 21, fecha del solsticio de invierno, termina un ciclo, sin hacer alusión al apocalipsis.

Morrison también refutó la versión del impacto contra la Tierra del planeta ficticio Nibiru, proveniente de fábulas y poemas sumerios.

“Si algo fuera a chocar contra nosotros, cualquiera podría verlo”, sentenció.

El experto consideró que toda la confusión en torno al 21 de diciembre es producto de la propagación de informaciones falsas y carentes de fundamentos en internet y las redes sociales.

Con información de agencias

Propone EPN Construcción del Tren Transpeninsular en Yucatan y Riviera Maya Quintana Roo

Propone EPN Construcción del Tren Transpeninsular en Yucatan y Riviera Maya Quintana Roo



El presidente Enrique Peña Nieto dijo que se reactivará el servicio de tren de pasajeros en el país y con ello se podrá hacer realidad el tren transpeninsular que concte a Yucatán, Campeche y Quintana Roo.

En su primer mensaje a la nación, en Palacio Nacional, tras rendir protesta como Primer Mandatario, Peña Nieto hizo este anuncio tras señalar el abandono de este sistema de transporte.

El pasado mes de junio, como candidato a la Presidencia, Peña Nieto firmó diversos compromisos en Yucatán, entre ellos concretar el “tren rápido transpeninsular”.

16062011297061329n
La obra costará 11 mil mdp; hay firmas locales y extranjeras interesadas en invertir.
Agencias

También se comprometió a realizar el proyecto del Centro Logístico de Valladolid, así como el de ampliar la carretera Mérida-Chetumal a cuatro carriles.

Cabe señalar que la iniciativa del tren rápido fue enarbolada por Ivonne Ortega Pacheco cuando asumió la gubernatura de Yucatán en 2007.

En tanto, en octubre de este año, el gobernador de Yucatán, Rolando Zapata Bello, anunció que entre las obras que serán impulsadas durante su mandato figuran la Plataforma Logística de Progreso y el Centro Logístico de Valladolid, además de la consolidación del Parque Científico y Tecnológico.

El proyecto de tren rápido transpeninsular está prácticamente listo para ser puesto en marcha y enlazar a Yucatán, Quintana Roo y Campeche. Se estima que a través de este medio de transporte al menos un millón de pasajeros lo utilicen al año; además, miles de toneladas podrán ser trasladadas por esta vía promovida por la gobernadora de Yucatán, Ivonne Ortega, y que contará con horarios matutino y nocturno. El primer turno será exclusivamente para pasajeros y el segundo para carga.

En entrevista con MILENIO, el secretario de Obras Públicas de Yucatán, Francisco Torres Rivas, sostuvo que a más tardar en septiembre próximo se lanzará la convocatoria para la licitación del proyecto que ha sido calificado como histórico, debido a que en “en 100 años no se había hecho una inversión en el sistema ferroviario del país”.

Torres Rivas manifestó que “en estos momentos estamos en espera de que la Unidad de Inversión de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público nos asigne un registro para contar con recursos públicos y sumarlos a los recursos privados, que esperan el visto bueno del gobierno de Felipe Calderón”.

Aseveró que embajadas como la de Gran Bretaña han tenido contacto con el gobierno yucateco para presentarles firmas interesadas en el proyecto. “Lo mismo sucede con empresas de naciones como China, Alemania y Francia, además de las mexicanas”, abundó.

Para determinar el costo y beneficio de la obra, el Banco Mundial financió las encuestas hechas a ocho mil personas que se trasladan, por ejemplo, de Mérida a Cancún. El resultado fue unánime: el tren rápido transpeninsular y costará 11 mil millones de pesos.

Con base en la información oficial que ya circula entre los gobiernos de Yucatán, Quintana Roo y de Campeche, así como en varias dependencias del gobierno federal, particularmente en las secretarías de Hacienda y de Comunicaciones y Transportes, y cuya copia tiene en su poder MILENIO, se desprende lo siguiente:

La inversión será de 11 mil millones de pesos. En su primera etapa el tren rápido recorrerá 336 kilómetros, de Yucatán a Quintana Roo.

La ruta inicia en Mérida y llega hasta Punta Venado, en la Riviera Maya, y pasaría por las poblaciones de Tixkokob, Tekantó, Tunkás, Dzitás y Chemax. Es decir, será prácticamente la misma que hay hasta Valladolid, ya que se tiene garantizado el derecho de vía.

Las estaciones estarán ubicadas en Izamal, Chichén Itzá, Valladolid y Cobá. Las terminales estarán en Mérida y Punta Venado.

En una segunda etapa el proyecto considera unir a Progreso y ampliar esa ruta hacia Uxmal y Campeche. Por su parte, en Quintana Roo se conectará a Cancún.

El servicio se prevé en dos horarios, uno para pasajeros, de las 06:00 horas a las 23:00, y otro para carga, y de 23:00 a 06:00.

El recorrido completo se estima en dos horas y media, a una velocidad promedio de 110 kilómetros por hora y una máxima de 160.

Se esperan 400 pasajeros por viaje. En el caso del servicio de carga, se plantea una velocidad promedio recomendada de 45 kilómetros por hora.

Si bien aún no se tiene definido el modelo de máquinas y vagones, se plantean tres opciones de combustible: diésel, biodiésel y la probabilidad de cambiar posteriormente a energía eléctrica.

En el mundo hay cuatro tipos de trenes: ligeros, rápidos, de alta velocidad y bala, que varían en tecnología y velocidades.

“Estamos en un momento en el que se han agotado los trabajos de las tres mesas que se formaron entre el gobierno de Yucatán y la SCT del gobierno federal”, dice.

Y detalla: “Una de esas mesas realizó el análisis jurídico y legal del proyecto. La otra abordó los trabajos de la obra, y la tercera trató los aspectos financieros para calcular ganancias, costos y beneficios”.

Torres Rivas señaló que luego de concluidos los trabajos de dichas mesas, el resto de las negociaciones va viento en popa en el Distrito Federal, por lo que tanto él como otros funcionarios del gobierno de Yucatán se la pasan hasta dos veces por semana en la Ciudad de México.

Respecto a las empresas nacionales y extranjeras interesadas en invertir en el proyecto, el secretario de Obras Públicas de Yucatán señaló que “en estos momentos no podemos dar a conocer los nombres de los eventuales inversionistas. Hay que esperar a que avance el diálogo y una vez que tengamos el registro de Hacienda, podemos tener una idea más afianzada de con quién se trabajará en la realización y ejecución del proyecto”.

Y agregó: “En cuanto a la locomotora, estamos hablando de que será un motor de biodiésel que migrará a eléctrico y esto beneficiará al medio ambiente”.

Presupuesto 2012

* Ya se han establecido reuniones con diputados federales de los diversos partidos para que en el Presupuesto de Egresos de 2012 se contemple una partida para apuntalar el tren rápido transpeninsular.

* El material que parte de Puerto Progreso, Yucatán, por ejemplo, que se lleva hacia Quintana Roo, no se puede bajar por barco por los combustibles, ya que es zona de reserva ecológica y la única manera es a través de pipas.

* A Pemex, por ejemplo, con tren rápido le representará un gran ahorro, además de que habrá mayor seguridad en las carreteras y menos mantenimiento en éstas.

Apuntalan el proyecto

Hace unas semanas, la Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes del gobierno federal declaró desierta la licitación para el aeropuerto de Tulúm. Desde entonces a la fecha, las negociaciones para la construcción del tren rápido transpeninsular entraron en una fase positiva.

De hecho, los gobiernos de Quintana Roo y Campeche se han sumado para apuntalar el proyecto del gobierno de Yucatán.

Respecto a ese interés, el secretario de Obras Públicas yucateco, Francisco Torres Rivas, dijo que “definitivamente, en esta etapa están involucrados los tres gobiernos que conforman la península; hay un interés muy especial por todos los beneficios que traerá a la región sur-sureste y sobre todo porque no se hecho una inversión importante en ferrocarriles en el país.

–¿Usted va y viene del Distrito Federal a Yucatán?

–Sí. Está fuerte el cabildeo, con una serie de reuniones positivas. A veces hasta dos veces por semana estamos en el DF sin descuidar otras tareas, pero sí estamos muy al pendiente. De hecho tenemos juntas esta semana, estamos en contacto permanente con toda la gente involucrada con este proyecto y esperamos que ya muy pronto podamos obtener el registro de Hacienda para sentarnos a ver los primeros recursos para el inicio de los trabajos de esta obra histórica

Alista Riviera Maya diversas actividades para despedir el 2012

SOLIDARIDAD, Quintana Roo (Notimex).— Con la inauguración de la Pirámide del pensamiento positivo, la celebración de la cosecha de miel de abeja maya y una serie de conciertos, la Riviera Maya se prepara para despedir el 2012.

El 22 de diciembre en Tulum se llevará a cabo la inauguración de la Pirámide del pensamiento positivo, que tiene como objetivo recibir de una forma optimista el inicio de una nueva etapa para la humanidad, de acuerdo con lo establecido en el Calendario Maya.

Las predicciones de la antigua civilización se basan en la cuenta de un período de 22 mil años, tiempo en el que el Sistema Solar da vuelta a la galaxia, y este tiempo llega a su fin el próximo 21 de diciembre.

De acuerdo con los organizadores de las actividades para el cierre de este 2012, ante las malas interpretaciones sobre las profecías, se decidió hacer un homenaje con una obra de arte a la sabiduría Maya, se trata de una pirámide construida con 700 mil botellas PET, que contienen un pensamiento positivo, escrito en hojas de papel por personas de la entidad y turistas.

También, entre los selváticos escenarios de Xel-Há se realizará en diciembre la celebración de la cosecha de miel de la abeja maya, con la intención de transmitir a las nuevas generaciones la relevancia y conservación de tradiciones ancestrales como la apicultura.

La celebración se realiza año con año en los meses de junio y diciembre y uno de sus objetivos es que no se extingan las abejas de esta especie y con ellas costumbres de origen prehispánico, en las que hacían ofrendas a los dioses para la abundancia en las cosechas de miel.

La ceremonia consiste en colocar el meliponario, en una choza con una construcción piramidal a base de madera, donde se resguardan las colmenas dentro de unos troncos llamados hondones, que se abren exclusivamente para la ceremonia y así extraer la miel.

En esta celebración sagrada participará un sacerdote, quien dirigirá a los asistentes durante un ritual, donde la música será un elemento imprescindible.

Para el público más joven, en los escenarios de Playa Mamitas, se llevará a cabo del 27 al 30 de diciembre el festival ‘Winter beach’, un encuentro musical con Dj´s nacionales e internacionales.

Este espacio musical tiene como propósito decir adiós al año viejo y recibir al nuevo, con la presentación de conciertos a cargo de talentos de México y otros países.

Apuesta por el Aeropuerto en Tulum Riviera Maya

Líderes políticos y empresariales esperan que el nuevo gobierno que encabeza el Presidente de la República Enrique Peña Nieto inicie con el tema del Aeropuerto Internacional de la Riviera Maya, a fin de mejorar la actividad económica y turística del municipio y del corredor turístico de la Riviera Maya.

La política de cielos abiertos, la construcción del aeropuerto de la Riviera Maya y el tren rápido, así como eliminar las visas a los mercados emergentes para el país, son algunos de los proyectos inconclusos que dejará la Secretaría de Turismo (Sectur), que encabezó Gloria Guevara Manzo.

En entrevista Pablo Tun Dzib líder municipal del Partido Revolucionario Institucional comentó que quizá fue por los trámites burocráticos o la falta de visión que estos temas quedarán pendientes pero confía en que se les pueda brindar continuidad.

Con relación a temas importantes como el aeropuerto o el tren rápido, dijo que deberán ser tópicos de conversación de la nueva administración federal e impulsar otros servicios como la vialidad.

Víctor Mass Tah, ex presidente municipal de Tulum, dijo que faltó darle una mayor fuerza y personalidad al Consejo Nacional de Promoción Turística (CPTM) y el apoyo de la Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes (SCT) a los temas del aeropuerto en la Riviera Maya y el tren rápido.

“Hacer un tren importante que comunique a toda la península sería muy bueno, ya que atraería un mayor turismo a la región, aunque a la Sectur y a todos los gobiernos les faltó darle más importancia”, destacó.

Abundó que también se requiere de más movilidad y posicionar mejor algunos destinos de la entidad, así como traer más líneas aéreas. Asimismo los entrevistados dijeron que estos temas podrían ser retomados por el nuevo gobierno, mismo que tiene una visión y claros objetivos para el progreso del país.